Takfeer is made of all Shias ascribing to any such belief that renders them out of the fold of Islam. (Fataawa Mahmudiyyah Vol. 4 Pg. 19, 32, 73) Although all Shias claim to be Muslims, most of them have beliefs that render them out of the fold of Islaam. The term ‘Shia’ initially referred to anyone who stood in favor of, or did not fight against Ali Radhiallahu Anhu. It later become the title of the deviated sect, but would include anyone who understood Ali Radhiallahu Anhu to have greater virtue than Uthmaan Radhiallahu Anhu, even though he rejected all the concocted beliefs of Shiasm. It is for this reason that at times a Rawi (narrator) of a Hadeeth, for example, who is from the Ahlus Sunah is mentioned and his affiliation is made to Shiasm. This would simply mean that he understood Ali Radhiallahu Anhu to have greater virtue than Uthmaan Radhiallahu Anhu.The shia were not united in their doctrine rather they differed greatly, having some of them holding beliefs that would render them as Faasiq and others such preposterous beliefs that would render them out of the fold of Islaam.Considering the afore-mentioned, one would understand that the Takfeer that is made is based on the beliefs of the individual not mere affiliation. (Usool Math-habish Shiah Vol. 1 Pg. 63) As a general concept one should understand that any person holding such a belief or doing such an action-the details of which are mentioned in the books of Aqaaid- that renders him out of the fold of Islaam, will not be regarded as a Muslim. Those Ulama who do make a general Takfeer of all Shias, do so based on the fact that they do not consider those ‘Shias’ who do not subscribe to the fundamental beliefs of Shiasm (which include beliefs that cause one to leave the fold of Islam) as Shia in reality, even though they may be titled Shia by others, hence according to them the blanket ruling is based on the Kufriyya beliefs and not mere affiliation.One should however be aware that the Shias of this time and era are generally those who subscribe to (or hold the beliefs of) the Ithna-Ashariyya (twelver) sect.(Ikhtilaaf e Ummat Aur Siraat e Mustaqeem). Many of their beliefs are such that render them out of the pale of Islam and therefore they cannot be regarded as Muslims. Allamah Shaami Rahimahullh writes in “Raddul-Muhtaar”:- “There is no doubt in the Kufr of those who accuse Hadhrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha of Zina, or deny the Sahabiyyat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Radhiallahu Anhu or regard Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu Anhu as god or claim that Hadhrat Jibra’il AlaihisSalaam had erred in bringing Wahi or those who hold other similar Kufriyya beliefs.” [Shaami Vol. 3, Pg. 46].For further clarification on the stance of the Ulama of Deoband one could refer to Fatawa Mahmudiyya vol 4 (Maktaba Mahmudiyyah), Ikhtilaaf-e-ummat aur sirat-e-mustaqeem, Jawaahirul Fiqh Vol:1 (Maktabah Darul Uloom Karachi)NB These books explain the subject and give reference to other detailed books on this subject.AND ALLAH TA’AALA ALONE IN HIS INFINITE KNOWLEDGE KNOWS BESTANSWERED BY: Abdullah Bin RiyaadhCHECKED AND APPROVED BY: Mufti Muhammed Saeed Motara Saheb D.B.